July 24, 2018

Routinely Identified Metabolites

Routinely identified metabolites (abbreviations in parenthesis) in the ISO1 and ISO1-UNL extracts, as verified by comparison to individual standards. Note: this list is not finite, as other metabolites have been identified with alternate protocols (e.g., coenzyme A’s – acetyl, malonyl, propionyl; glucose-1-phosphate; fructose-1-phosphate) or are subject to degradation (e.g., reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate – NADPH).

Below is an illustrative example of our characterization data and tabulated examples of the routinely identified metabolites.



Figure: XICs of NADP+ produced by 2D RP-LC-MRM/MS on Agilent’s 6490 QqQ. This 13C- labeled cofactor measured in the metabolite yeast extract (ISO1) is shown together with its unlabeled NADP+ standard (ISO1-UNL) with one transition for simplicity.


Amino Acids and Derivatives (L enantiomer where applicable)
S-Adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) Glutamate (Glu) Methionine (Met)
Alanine (Ala) Glutamine (Gln) (±)-3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid (K-IVal)
α-Aminoadipic acid (AAD) Glycine (Gly) Ornithine (Orn)
Arginine (Arg) Guanidineacetic acid (GAA) Phenylalanine (Phe)
Argininosuccinic acid (ASA) Histidine (His) Proline (Pro)
Asparagine (Asn) Homoserine (Hse) Sarcosine (Sar)
Aspartate (Asp) Isoleucine (Ile) Serine (Ser)
Betaine (BET) α-Ketoisovalerate (KIV) Threonine (Thr)
Citrulline (Cit) Kynurenine (KYN) Tryptophan (Trp)
Cystathionine (CYS) Leucine (Leu) Tyrosine (Tyr)
Dihydroxyisovalerate (DIHV) Lysine (Lys) Valine (Val)
Nucleobases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides
Adenine (Ade) Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) Inosine (Isin)
Adenosine (Asin) Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) Inosine monophosphate (IMP)
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 5’-Deoxy-5’-methylthioadenosine (MTAP) 5-Methyluridine (m5U)
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Guanine (Gnin) Pseudouridine (PsU)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Guanosine (Gsin) Uridine (Uri)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) Uridine diphosphate (UDP)
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) Uridine monophosphate (UMP)
Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Uridine triphosphate (UTP)
Organic Acids
cis-Aconitate (cis-Ac) DL-2-Hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) Malate (Mali)
Citrate (Cit) Isocitrate (Iso) Pyruvate (Pyr)
Fumerate (Fum) α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) Succinate (Suc)
Gluconate (GA) Lactate (Lac)
Sugar and Sugar Phosphates (D enantiomer where applicable)
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) Glucose (Glc) 6-Phosphogluconate (6PGA)
Erythritol (Erthrit) Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) Ribose (RIB)
Fructose (Fuc) Mannitol (Man-Ol) Ribose-5-phosphate (R5P)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) Mannose (Man) Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate (S7P)
Fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) Trehalose (TRE)
Galactose (Gal) 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG)
Vitamins and Coenzymes
Biotin (B7)* Nicotinamide (NAA) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH)
Choline (CHOL) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, oxidized (NADP+)
Other Small Molecules
Glutamylcysteine (Glu-Cys) Glutathione, oxidized (GSSG) Mevalonic acid (MVA)
Glutathione, reduced (GSH)

* Identified in ISO1-UNL only.